References and Links


  1. Jakel, R.J. and Maragos, W.F. (2000). Neuronal cell death in Huntington's Disease: A potential role for Dopamine. Trends Neurosc; 23, 239-245.
  2. Levy, O.A., Malagelada, C. and Greene, L.A. (2009). Cell death patheays in Parkinson's disease: Proximal triggers distal effectors and final steps. Apoptosis; 14(4): 478-500. 
  3. Orrenius, S., Nicotera, P. and Zhivotovsky, B. (2010) Cell Death Mechanisms and Their Implications in Toxicology. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 119(1), 3–19.
  4. Petak, I., Houghton, J.A. and Kopper, L. (2006). Molecular Target of Cell Death Signaling Transduction Pathways in Cancer. Current Signal Transduction Therapy; 1, 113-131.
  5. Weng, L-P., Brown, J.L. and Eng, C. (2001) PTEN induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through phosphoinositol-3-kinase/Akt-dependent and -independent pathways. Human Molecular Genetics; 10(3): 237-242. 


1) Basic pathology : an introduction to the mechanisms of disease. Lakhani et al. 4th Ed. ISBN 9780340950036. 

2) Molecular biology of the cell. Alberts et al. 5th Ed. ISBN 0815341067. 


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Various definitions from the medical dictionary of TheFreeDictionary

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