Cytochrome C

a water-soluble component of the electron-transport chain of mitochondria. It is an important factor in the initiation of the intrinsic pathway of mammalian apoptosis.

Bcl-2 protein

Bcl-2 protein belongs to a class of proteins that regulate apoptosis, cell cycle, differentiation and autophagy. High levels of Bcl-2 proteins protect a cell from early death by apoptosis by preventing the activation of the caspases that carry out apoptosis.


It is a condition where there is an unusual proliferation of lymphocytes in the blood due to Epstein-Barr viral infection.

E6 and E7

They are viral oncogens that promote cell growth by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb

Cytotoxic T cells

They belong to a sub-group of T-lymphocytes that are capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells. They kill cells that are infected with viruses and other pathogens, or cells that are damaged or dysfunctional.


Fas is the receptor of FasL, when they bind to each other they form the Death-Inducing Signaling complex


Fas Ligand or CD95L is a type-2 transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. It induces apoptosis when it binds to its receptor. Fas lingand - receptor interactions play an important role in the regulation of the immune system and the progression of cancer.

Hayflick limit

is the normal number of divisions a cell (or a group of cells) is capable of before it halts proliferation. This is thought to be a result of telomeres reaching a critical length. During DNA replication in cell divisions, the telomeres (a region at the end of DNA sequence of a chromosome) are not...

Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER)

The AER is a thickened layer of ectodermal cell at the distal tip of a developing limb bud. Along with the zone of polarizing activity, it is a crucial organizing region during limb development.


It is also known as protein 53, it is a tumor suppressor protein that in humans is encoded by TP53 gene an anti-oncogene which is located on the long arm of chromosome 17. p53 is important in multicellular organisms where it regulates the cell cycle.